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Information page for
Germany

Weather

All you need to know about Germany. Weather updates, local language, currency and more.

Demography

Germany is the 16th most populous country in the world and has the second highest number of international migrants worldwide, behind the United States.

Demographics


Population

80,594,017 (July 2017 est.)

Density

237 (P/Km²) (2016) 

Gender 

Male: 49.0% 

Female: 51.0%

(Feb. 2018)

Birth rate

8.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Life Expectancy 

Total population: 80.8 years

male: 78.5 years

female: 83.3 years

(2017 est.)

Median age

47.1 years (2017 est.)

Literacy rate


99% (2003 est.)

Definition: Aged 15 and over and can read and write.


Population below poverty line 

16.7% (2015 est.)

Official Languages

German

Figure 1. Demography of Germany (Source: CIA Factbook, countrymeters, Trading Economics, indexmundi)


Figure 2. Languages spoken in Germany (Sources: CIA Factbook)

* Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romani are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romani are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.


Figure 3. Ethnic groups in Germany (Source: CIA Factbook)


* Other: Polish, Italian, Romanian, Syrian, and Greek.

Figure 4. Religions in Germany (2015 est.). (CIA Factbook)


* Other:  Muslim (4.4%), Orthodox Christian (1.9%), Other (1.7%) 

Geography

Germany is a country in west-central Europe, that stretches from the Alps, across the North European Plain to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Germany has the second largest population in Europe and is seventh largest in area.

Figure 5. Administrative divisions of Germany


Geography


Location 

Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark.

Size

357,022 sq. km

Borders

Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland

Capital City 

Berlin

Provinces/Regions

4 zones in 16 states (Bundesländer)

Topography

Lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

Climate

Temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers. Occasional warm mountain wind (Foehn) 

Time Zone

(UTC+1) 

Calling Code

+49

ISO Code

DEU

Figure 6. Geography facts of Germany (Source: CIA Factbook)

Politics

Germany is a democratic, federal parliamentary republic, and its federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag and the Bundesrat.

Politics


Conventional name

Federal Republic of Germany

Government type

Federal parliamentary republic

Executive branch 

  • Chief of State: President 
  • Head of government: Chancellor 
  • Cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) recommended by the chancellor, appointed by the president
  • Elections/appointments: 
  • President indirectly elected by a Federal Convention consisting of all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equivalent number of delegates indirectly elected by the state parliaments. President serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second term).
  • Following the most recent Federal Parliament election, the party or coalition with the most representatives usually elects the chancellor and is appointed by the president to serve a renewable 4-year term.
  • Election results: Votes count from Federal Convention and Federal Parliament

Legislative 


  • Bicameral Parliament or Parlament, consists of:
  • The Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 seats): Members appointed by each of the 16 state governments.
  • The Federal Diet or Bundestag (709 seats): Total seats can vary each electoral term. Approximately one half of members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and approximately one -half directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote. Members serve 4-year terms.


  • Elections: 
  • Bundestag.
  • There are no elections for the Bundesrat. Its composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments. The composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election.
  • Election results: Bundestag - percent of vote by party.

Judicial 

  • Highest Court - Federal Court of Justice; Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht.
  • Subordinate Courts – Federal Administrative Court, Federal Finance Court, Federal Labor Court, Federal Social Court. 


  • Each of the 16 German states or each Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts.
Figure 7. Politic facts of Germany (Sources: CIA Factbook)

Economics

The German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment and benefits from a highly skilled labour force. Like its Western European neighbours, Germany faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and a large increase in net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms.

Economy


Currency

Euro (EUR / €)

Exchange rate

1 USD = EUR 0.81 (Feb. 2018)

GDP (TOTAL)

$4.15 trillion (2017 est.) (PPP)

GDP per capita

$50,200 (2017 est.) (PPP)

GDP real growth rate

2.1% (2017 est.)

Unemployment

3.8% (2017 est.)

Inflation

1.6% (2017 est.)

Figure 8. Economic Facts of Germany (Source: CIA Factbook, XE Currency converter)


Figure 9. GDP Composition by sectors of Germany (2017 est.) (Source: CIA Factbook)

National Holidays

NATIONAL HOLIDAYS 2018


Date

Holiday

1 Jan

New Year

6 Jan

Epiphany

19 Apr

Good Friday

21 Apr

Easter

22 Apr

Easter Monday

1 May

Labour Day

10 May

Ascension

31 May

Corpus Christi

9 Jun

Pentecost

10 Jun

Pentecost Monday

15 Aug

Assumption of Mary

3 Oct

German Unity Day

31 Oct

Reformation Day

1 Nov

All Saints

25 Dec

Christmas

Figure 10. National Public holidays in Germany (web-calendar)